|Area of Origin:
|Date of Origin:
||Epagneul Nain, Butterfly
Dog, Continental Toy Spaniel
Papillon is one of the oldest breeds of dog, with a recorded
history in Europe going back nearly 700 years. These early dogs
had drooping ears, but through some unknown event, some dogs
sported erect ears. Both drop-and erect-eared Papillon could
be found in the same litter. Even today both ear types are equally
correct, although the erect-eared dog is much more popular.
In America, the drop-eared Pap is known as the Phalene, which
is French for moth, whereas in Europe it is called the Epagneul
Nain or Continental Toy Spaniel. The name Papillon is French
for butterfly, which the face and ears of this sprightly little
dog should resemble. At one time the Papillon was known as
the Squirrel Spaniel because it carried its plumed tail over
its back in the same way a squirrel does. This tiny breed is
recognisable in 13th through 15th century Italian frescoes.
It was featured in many paintings of the Renaissance period;
in fact much of the breed's development is known because of
its depiction in paintings. The breed was widespread in Italy
during the Renaissance and later perfected by French breeders.
Some of its talents include: watch dogging, agility, competitive
obedience, and performing tricks.
Papillon is an intelligent dog breed who is easy to train.
It is one of the most obedient and responsive dogs in the toy
group. Friendly and playful, the Papillon gets along with all
the family members and pets. Some can be timid.
lively Papillon thrives on mental stimulation and it enjoys
a daily walk on leash as well as challenging games indoors and
out. This is not a breed to live outdoors. Its coat is virtually
carefree, requiring only occasional brushing to remove dead
Official Breed Standard
This dainty, balanced little toy dog should
have an attractive head, an alert bearing and an intelligent and
lively expression. Movement should be sound, light and free and
not cramped or restricted in any way.
Head and Skull:
The skull slightly rounded between the ears,
the muzzle finely pointed and abruptly thinner than the skull accentuating
the stop which should be well defined. Length from tip of the nose
to the stop approximately a third length of the head. Nose should
Muzzle over-long or coarse. Skull flat or
apple shaped. Nose other than black.
Of medium size, rounded, dark in colour,
placed rather low in the head and should not bulge.
Eyes light in colour, too small or too large
The ears should be large and mobile with
rounded tips, heavily fringed, set towards the back of the head,
far enough apart to show the slightly rounded shape of the skull.
The ears must be completely erect or dropped. When the ears are
erect they must be carried obliquely like the spread wings of a
butterfly, therefore the name, Papillon. When the ears are dropped
they must be completely dropped, and this type is known as the Phalene
Semi-erect or not fully dropped, small, sharply
pointed or set too close together.
Scissor bite, upper teeth fitting close over
lower. The lips thin and tight.
Over or undershot to the extent that the
incisors do not touch at all. Wry mouth.
Of medium length.
Shoulders well developed and sloping back.
Chest rather deep. Forelegs straight, slender and fine-boned .
Shoulders straight. Out at elbow.
Level topline. The body should have plenty
of length, well formed with well sprung ribs, good length of loin
which must not be weak, with slightly arched belly.
Topline roached, dipped or cobby. Legs malformed
and crooked, cow-hocked, too long or too short. Stifles straight,
coupled with weak hindquarters.
Well developed, good turn of stifle. Legs
when viewed from behind, should be parallel. Dew claws on the hind
legs must be removed.
Fine and fairly long as in the hare. The
tufts of hair between the toes extending far beyond them.
Long and well fringed, set on high, arched
over the back with the fringes falling to the side to form the plume.
Tail unduly short, too low set.
Should be abundant, (flowing) but without
undercoat, long, fine, silky, falling flat on back and sides forming
a profuse frill on the chest, short and close on the skull, muzzle
and front part of the legs. Back part of the front legs to pasterns,
tail and thighs covered with long hair.
Harsh, curly or stand-off coat.
White with patches which may be any colour
except liver. A tri-colour must be black and white with tan spots
over the eyes, tan inside ears and under root of tail and on cheeks.
The head marking should be symmetrical about a white, narrow, clearly
The ideal height at the withers from 20.3
to 28 cm. (8-11 inches). The dog will appear to be slightly longer
than high when properly furnished with ruff and hind fringes.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended
into the scrotum.