Papillon

Toy

Group: Toy
Size: small
Lifespan: 12-15 years
Exercise: little
Grooming: moderate
Trainability: very hard
Watchdog ability: very high
Protection ability: very low
Area of Origin: France
Date of Origin: 1500’s
Other Names: Epagneul Nain, Butterfly Dog, Continental Toy Spaniel
Original Function: small-vermin hunting
History
The Papillion is one of the oldest breeds of dog, with a recorded history in Europe going back nearly 700 years. These early dogs had drooping ears, but through some unknown event, some dogs sported erect ears. Both drop-and erect-eared Papillion could be found in the same litter. Even today both ear types are equally correct, although the erect-eared dog is much more popular. In America, the drop-eared Pap is known as the Phalene, which is French for moth, whereas in Europe it is called the Epagneul Nain or Continental Toy Spaniel. The name Papillion is French for butterfly, which the face and ears of this sprightly little dog should resemble. At one time the Papillion was known as the Squirrel Spaniel because it carried its plumed tail over its back in the same way a squirrel does. This tiny breed is recognisable in 13th through 15th century Italian frescoes. It was featured in many paintings of the Renaissance period; in fact much of the breed's development is known because of its depiction in paintings. The breed was widespread in Italy during the Renaissance and later perfected by French breeders. Some of its talents include: watch dogging, agility, competitive obedience, and performing tricks.
 
Temperament
The Papillion is an intelligent dog breed who is easy to train. It is one of the most obedient and responsive dogs in the toy group. Friendly and playful, the Papillion gets along with all the family members and pets. Some can be timid.
 
Upkeep
The lively Papillon thrives on mental stimulation and it enjoys a daily walk on leash as well as challenging games indoors and out. This is not a breed to live outdoors. Its coat is virtually carefree, requiring only occasional brushing to remove dead hair.


Official Breed Standard

GENERAL APPEARANCE:
This dainty, balanced little toy dog should have an attractive head, an alert bearing and an intelligent and lively expression. Movement should be sound, light and free and not cramped or restricted in any way.

Head and Skull:
The skull slightly rounded between the ears, the muzzle finely pointed and abruptly thinner than the skull accentuating the stop which should be well defined. Length from tip of the nose to the stop approximately a third length of the head. Nose should be black.

Faults:
Muzzle over-long or coarse. Skull flat or apple shaped. Nose other than black.

Eyes:
Of medium size, rounded, dark in colour, placed rather low in the head and should not bulge.

Faults:
Eyes light in colour, too small or too large or protruding.

Ears:
The ears should be large and mobile with rounded tips, heavily fringed, set towards the back of the head, far enough apart to show the slightly rounded shape of the skull. The ears must be completely erect or dropped. When the ears are erect they must be carried obliquely like the spread wings of a butterfly, therefore the name, Papillon. When the ears are dropped they must be completely dropped, and this type is known as the Phalene (moth).

Faults:
Semi-erect or not fully dropped, small, sharply pointed or set too close together.

Mouth:
Scissor bite, upper teeth fitting close over lower. The lips thin and tight.

Faults:
Over or undershot to the extent that the incisors do not touch at all. Wry mouth.

Neck:
Of medium length.

Forequarters:
Shoulders well developed and sloping back. Chest rather deep. Forelegs straight, slender and fine-boned .

Faults:
Shoulders straight. Out at elbow.

Body:
Level topline. The body should have plenty of length, well formed with well sprung ribs, good length of loin which must not be weak, with slightly arched belly.

Faults:
Topline roached, dipped or cobby. Legs malformed and crooked, cow-hocked, too long or too short. Stifles straight, coupled with weak hindquarters.

Hindquarters:
Well developed, good turn of stifle. Legs when viewed from behind, should be parallel. Dew claws on the hind legs must be removed.

Feet:
Fine and fairly long as in the hare. The tufts of hair between the toes extending far beyond them.

Tail:
Long and well fringed, set on high, arched over the back with the fringes falling to the side to form the plume.

Faults:
Tail unduly short, too low set.

Coat:
Should be abundant, (flowing) but without undercoat, long, fine, silky, falling flat on back and sides forming a profuse frill on the chest, short and close on the skull, muzzle and front part of the legs. Back part of the front legs to pasterns, tail and thighs covered with long hair.

Faults:
Harsh, curly or stand-off coat.

Colour:
White with patches which may be any colour except liver. A tri-colour must be black and white with tan spots over the eyes, tan inside ears and under root of tail and on cheeks. The head marking should be symmetrical about a white, narrow, clearly defined blaze.

Size:
The ideal height at the withers from 20.3 to 28 cm. (8-11 inches). The dog will appear to be slightly longer than high when properly furnished with ruff and hind fringes.

Note:
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.


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